“MEDIEVAL CITY ABIVERD"
Abiverd, Peshtak, medieval city, located to the west from Kaahka. This is one of the most significant cities of North Khorasan, repeatedly mentioned in written sources, namely from the times of Arab conquest. Historian At-Tabari wrote exact date of Khorasancities ‘s conquest such as Abiverd, Nisa, Serakhs and Merv by Arabs in 651. Haradzh (tax fee) for Abiverd in IX century was 700000 dirkhems that is twice exceeded haradzh of Serakhs. This proves that in those times Abiverd region was more densely populated, than Serakhs.
In IX century there was a fight for Khorasan’s possession between Seljuks and Gaznevids. Abiverd is mentioned in annals as the city where Togrulbek Seljuk (the founder of Seljuk Empire) and MasudGaznevi stopped. Historian Djuveini stressed that Nisa and Abiverd in one moment were destroyed by Mongol invasion. In XV century Abiverd region there were several villages, auls and towns.
Semenov, who made the first drafts of the medieval citadel of Abiverd, firstly excavated Abiverd in 1928.
In 1947 Abiverd visited South Turkestan Archeological Expedition, which reconsider the dwellings of Abiverd from the early Middle Ages to XIX century.
The fragments of ceramic found in Abiverd dated from VII c. to X c. Citadel with 20 towers has the size of square 300 to 350m. Abiverd had been developing due to its position on the crossroad of trade routes, which connected cities and regions of the northern Kopetdag with Iran. Besides from the northern part of Abiverd there was the stepper – important market for selling the crafts articles and purchasing cattle-breeding materials. Historian Makdisi liked Abiverd more that Nisa because of its bazaars and fruitful and rich soils.